King foot

November 1, 2021

The vernier caliper is an instrument for measuring magnitudes ; it is also known as caliper and vernier. This last name is due to its inventor, Pierre Vernier, a French mathematician; who even invented the vernier scale. This scale is the one used in the measurement by means of the vernier caliper.

The vernier scale consists of an auxiliary scale called vernier that allows to reduce the margin of error in the measurements taken. This is because when using a rule you can see that between the divisions, even the smallest ones, in turn have divisions between them that are not marked.

What the vernier does is mark these divisions, making them visible in order to determine more precise measurements. There are different types of verniers and they are commonly used in various areas, especially in construction; to be able to take accurate measurements.

What is the Caliper?

The caliper is capable of measuring even fractions of a millimeter ; showing a more accurate measurement capability than that of conventional elements. It is formed by a ruler that makes the body of the instrument, at its ends it has parts for internal and external measurements and is equipped with a vernier.

The ruler has two types of measurement, in the upper part it is measured in inches and in the lower part in millimeters. Likewise, the upper end has the clamps for external and internal measurements, the largest corresponding to the external ones and the small ones to the internal ones. While the lower end has a kind of rod for measuring depths.

The vernier caliper is an extremely complete instrument , both for its ability to measure with high accuracy, and for its equipment, which allows different types of surfaces to be measured. It also has an adjustment function so that you can move the vernier through the measurements of the ruler and adjust the clamps on the measurement object.

What is the Caliper for?

The caliper is a measuring instrument, however, there were already other types of measuring instruments such as different rulers, including the tape measure, which has the advantage of being able to measure on curved surfaces. So why is the vernier caliper innovative? Because the measuring instruments had a lower precision capacity than this.

The innovation of the vernier caliper is due to its multifunctionality and the implementation of the vernier . To give you an idea of ​​how this works; the vernier takes a fragment of the ruler and subdivides it, making between the distance of the first division of the ruler and the first division of the vernier there is a difference of half the unit of the ruler.

What it does then has a more accurate millimeter precision, because without the fragmentation of the millimeters of the ruler you can end up assuming a measurement with a wider margin of error. In the case of its multiple functionality, it is due to its ability to measure interiors and exteriors with the adjustable calipers, remaining flush with the ends of the surface to be measured.

Caliper uses

The vernier caliper is used mostly in trades such as construction, turnery, and mechanics . This is thanks to the fact that it measures internal and external angles, making it ideal for working with parts such as nuts. The caliper is normally used in these trades, although it can also be used for non-specialized uses, you just have to handle it with care.

How is the Caliper used?

Learning to use the vernier caliper is not a complicated task but it must be properly used to have the correct measurements; otherwise it would be of no use to have a high precision calibrator if the measurements are going to give an error due to misuse.

  • The first thing to make sure is that it is straight and level with the surface to be measured.
  • Adjust the upper or lower calipers , depending on whether you are measuring the inside or outside of the object.
  • Both pairs of grippers have sliding operation
  • Once slipped, you fix it with the impeller so it doesn’t move while you measure
  • Then you carry out the measurement, to do this, look at the division of the rule that coincides with the “0” of the vernier
  • To see how much it was displaced you observe the correspondence of the vernier with the main one, measuring the millimeters

You should bear in mind that the measurements in inches are made differently , considering the decimal numbers in fractions. The vernier caliper is a delicate instrument, so it is wise to be careful when using the vernier caliper. When storing it, remember to leave the clamps closed with the impeller attached, so that they do not slip.

The vernier caliper is a common tool found in mechanical workshops, its use extends to any area where exact measurements are required. Mostly hollow objects, in which both the external and internal clamps are used, and even the depth gauge.

Types of vernier calipers

Due to the immense variety of objects that exist and the usefulness of the vernier measurement system, a wide variety of calipers have been implemented, which vary in size, the type of objects to be measured and even the operation. Some being more exact or complex than others. Among the main ones, the following stand out:

  • Caliper Type M (fine adjustment)

Depth bars, measures small internal dimensions.

  • Digital Caliper

It has an LCD screen to indicate the measurement automatically. Its range of precision is higher as it does not depend on the human estimation of the measurement.

  • King’s foot Kafer

Specifically designed for the thickness measurement of a material, they are subdivided into analog and digital.

  • Caliper with adjustable caliper

For objects with uneven tips, adjust the caliper clips vertically between the tips.

  • Double caliper foot

This is a large size and is used in gear measurement.

There are also differences between the various calipers that depend on the measurements they cover. When acquiring one, it is crucial that you think about the use that you will give it, because it is from there that you can evaluate the characteristics that the caliper needs to have to adapt to your needs. Although the universal type is the most versatile at this point.

Caliper characteristics

Actually, depending on the type of caliper, the parts it has and consequently its characteristics vary; therefore I will explain the characteristics of the universal type. Mainly because regardless if the caliper has more parts, it must have these; With the exception of the digital one, which does not require verniers because it is automatic.

The vernier caliper is made up of 6 fundamental parts :

  • External measurement clamps

Two clamps, a fixed and a mobile clamp to adjust to the size of the object.

  • Internal measurement calipers

Two clamps, also a fixed clamp and a movable one. These are smaller than the outer clamps.

  • Depth grid

Rod used to measure depth, is at the lower end.

  • Push button

It is used to fix the clamps once they have been slid.

  • Nonio

Of these there are two, one for reading fractions of millimeters and the other for reading inches. Small movable scale that subdivides the rule.

  • Body

Rule to which the other pieces are attached.

With the exception of the body, most parts of the caliper are movable to fit the measuring pieces. It is this quality that makes it an instrument of care, so as not to damage the mechanisms that fix it in its position. The digital vernier caliper has an LCD display instead of the vernier.

Importance of the Caliper

The vernier caliper is a highly relevant instrument when making measurements. Accuracy in analog instruments is not so easy to achieve due to the margin of human error; For this reason, the implementation of the verniers was an innovation that allowed making these measurements with a lower margin of error , and implementing their use in various areas.

Dr. Loony Davis5
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Born and raised in Brussels in an English family, I have always lived in a multicultural environment. After several work experiences in marketing and communication, I came to Smart Water Magazine, which I describe as the most exciting challenge of my career.
I am a person with great restlessness and curiosity to learn, discover what I do not know, as well as reinvent myself daily, someone who is curious about life and wants to know. I enjoy sharing knowledge.
This is my personal project but I also collaborate in other blogs, it is the case, the most important web on water currently exists in the US, if you are interested you can read my articles here.

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